Why women live longer than men?
Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown in the past? There isn't much evidence and we have only partial solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than men, ابر التخسيس we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.
We have learned that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1
This chart shows that, although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.
In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.
First, there's an upward trend: Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny It has significantly increased with time.
If you select the option "Change country in the chart, check that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.